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Module 12 – Dangerous Goods FIATA Diploma Programme

FIATA Module 12 – Dangerous
Goods

Author: Mark Goodger
A World Class Hub of International Trade Knowledge

www.gmls.co.za
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Module 12 – Dangerous Goods FIATA Diploma Programme

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: ROLE OF THE PARTIES IN THE TRANSPORT CHAIN ............................................. 5

1. Basic Concepts and Definitions ................................................................................................. 5
2.Role of the Parties in the Transport Chain ................................................................................. 7
3.In-house Policy and Risk Management ...................................................................................... 9
CHAPTER 2: DANGEROUS GOODS REGULATIONS .............................................................. 11

1. UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (Orange book)................... 11
2. IATA-DGR and ICAO-TI (Air) ................................................................................................. 14
3. IMDG Code (Sea).................................................................................................................. 17
4. ADR (Road) ...................................................................................................................... 20
5. RID (Rail) ...................................................................................................................... 22
6. Inland Waterway Transport (ADN) ...................................................................................... 23
7. EN12798 (Supplement to ISO 9000 Series) and National Legislations ................................ 25
CHAPTER 3: DG CLASSIFICATION ...................................................................................... 28

1. Main classes (1 – 9) .............................................................................................................. 28
2. Identification: UN Number, Proper Shipping Name ............................................................ 33
CHAPTER 4: MARKING AND HANDLING OF HAZARDOUS CARGO........................................ 35

1. Hazard Labels and Labelling................................................................................................. 35
2. Packaging and Packing Groups ............................................................................................. 41
3. Vehicle Plates and Placarding of Vehicles ............................................................................ 48
4. Handling of Dangerous Goods ............................................................................................... 52
5. Data Banks / Reference Points / Local Expertise (Civil Defence, Port Authority etc.) .......... 54

CHAPTER 5: TRAINING ........................................................................................... 63

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Module 12 – Dangerous Goods FIATA Diploma Programme

1. Training Plan 63
2. Person in charge of Dangerous Goods - General Awareness / Familiarisation Training...... 64
3. Training Guidelines, Checklists, Programmes and Policies................................................... 64
4. Introduction to the Regulations for the safe handling and transport of Dangerous Goods 68

5. Safety and Security Inspections at Interfaces and Preventive Actions .................................. 71
6. ISPS Code in Seaborne Traffic ................................................................................................ 72
7. South African Occupational Health and Safety Legislative Provisions Concerning Dangerous

Goods............................................................................................................ 78
8. FIATA Publication: “A FIATA Introduction to the Regulations for the Safe Handling and

Transport of Dangerous Goods”................................................................... 80

CHAPTER 6: DOCUMENTATION .............................................................................. 81

1. Shippers’ Declaration............................................................................................................... 81
2.Multimodal Dangerous Goods Form ........................................................................................ 82
Annex 1 - Hazard characteristics, properties and classification criteria for each class .............. 90
Annex 2 - Proper Shipping Name in Sea Transport ................................................................... 97

Safety is No Accident

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Module 12 – Dangerous Goods FIATA Diploma Programme

LEARNER GUIDE

FIATA Diploma Module 12: Dangerous Goods

Overall Module Learning Objectives:

On completion of this Module, the learner will be able to:

v Know and understand the most important UN Regulations (Air, Sea, Road and Rail)

for the transport of Dangerous Goods.

v Select and complete the necessary documents for the local and international

transport of Dangerous Goods via all modes of transport.

v Explain and apply the systems, processes and procedures used to ensure Safety in

the Supply Chain.

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Module 12 – Dangerous Goods FIATA Diploma Programme

CHAPTER 1: ROLE OF THE PARTIES IN THE TRANSPORT CHAIN

Chapter Learning Objectives:
On completion of this Chapter, the learner will be able to:

v Know and understand the concepts of safety and dangerous goods in the context
of the transport of goods.

v Explain the responsibilities for safety and security of the major parties involved
in the transport chain.

v Describe the importance of in-house policy and risk management, and to know
and understand what they pertain to, respectively.

The carriage of dangerous goods has increased substantially since 1945 owing to the
increased use of these goods. Transport of dangerous goods is regulated in order to
prevent injury to persons, damage to property, or harm to the environment. Because
they are dangerous, these items are regulated by international and governmental
agencies, to ensure a global standard is adhered to.
Various parties are involved in the transportation of dangerous goods. To provide the
safe transport of dangerous goods, everyone involved must properly prepare, handle,
and transport the goods. Due diligence is necessary for all the parties. Based on the role
it plays in the transport chain, every party assumes different responsibilities.

1. Basic Concepts and Definitions

Objective:
On completion of this section, the learner will be able to:

v Know and understand the concepts of safety and dangerous goods in the context
of the transport of goods.

Dangerous goods
Dangerous Goods can be defined as articles or substances which can damage the health
and safety of persons, or which could bring damage to property, to the environment, to
the means of transport and to other equipment employed, or to other goods.
Dangerous goods can be carried safely providing certain principles are adopted. Such
principles have been used in developing international and national regulations for the
safe transport of dangerous goods by air, inland waterways, rail, road or sea.

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Module 12 – Dangerous Goods FIATA Diploma Programme

Safety & Security
Safety can be defined as the condition of being safe, which means free from danger,
risk, or injury/damage. This condition may apply to persons, objects, goods and to the
environment.
While security implies the freedom from risk or danger, which is similar to safety,
security also refers to the measures adopted to prevent danger, risk, or injury/damage.
The measures can be adopted by government, business or the homeowner.

Accidents / Incidents
Despite the preventive regulations, measures and cautions, accidents or incidents with
dangerous goods during transport will happen occasionally.
In terms of the handling, storage and/ or transport of dangerous goods, an accident is
defined as an occurrence which results in:

• fatal or serious injury to a person; or
• major damage to property or the environment
If, other than an accident, the occurrence has resulted in either of the following, it is
defined as an incident:
• injury to a person;
• damage to property of the environment;
• fire;
• breakage;
• spillage;
• leakage of fluid or radiation; or
• Other evidence that the integrity of the packaging has not been maintained.
Any occurrence relating to the handling, storage and/ or transport of dangerous goods
which seriously jeopardises a person, property or the environment is also deemed to be
a dangerous goods incident.

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2. Role of the Parties in the Transport Chain

Objective:
On completion of this section, the learner will be able to:

v Explain the main responsibilities of the parties involved in the dangerous goods

transport chain.
Shipper’s Responsibility
The shipper is the key to the transport of dangerous goods. They have the majority of
responsibilities prior to the carriage. In general, the shipper must properly:

• Recognise and identify that there are dangerous goods in their shipment
• Provide clear information on the nature of the goods, and classify the item into

one of the 9 dangerous goods classes
• Package the goods appropriately
• Apply the applicable markings, labels and placarding
• Complete the required documentation
• Ensure that all national and international regulations have been complied with;

and
• Ensure their shipment is made safe for transport
Apart from the shipper, some countries’ national laws also impose responsibilities on
the importer of dangerous goods, i.e. to ensure that the shipper of the shipment has
complied with their responsibilities.
Freight Forwarder’s Responsibility
When acting as only an agent, the freight forwarder’s responsibilities are somewhat
limited. The freight forwarder as a “middle-man” has, in general, the following duties:
• Select safe ways of transportation and handling of the goods
• Advise the shipper on all implications and requirements of the transport of the

goods and verify that the shipper has followed the regulations
Should the freight forwarder physically handle the shipment, they will assume more
responsibilities such as:

• Proper, safe handling and storage
• Proper, safe loading into trucks to transfer the items to the carrier

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• Inspection of packages every time they are handled, to ensure the package is
intact for transport and handling and has not been compromised during
transportation.

• Reporting of any accidents/incidents
• Following emergency procedures in the event of an accident/incident
If the freight forwarder further expands his functions by acting as a carrier, he shall
naturally assume many of the carrier’s responsibilities (see below).
Carrier’s Responsibility
The carrier makes the final decision whether to accept a shipment for carriage or not.
The carrier has many responsibilities in the transport of dangerous goods. They are
generally responsible for:

v Acceptance or verification that the shipment of dangerous goods has been

properly prepared for carriage.

v Provision of capable staff and appropriate equipment for transport and handling

of the goods.

v Provision of the appropriate marks, labels, placards, signs to the vehicles and

documentation.

v Storage, loading and unloading of the shipments.
v Inspection of the shipment during handling, for any leaks or damages.
v Reporting of any accidents/incidents, and corresponding emergency procedures.
v Training of all employees that may come into contact with dangerous goods.

Third Party Liability (Warehousing)
There may be third parties involved in the supply chain of the dangerous goods. In such
a case, the third party also assumes responsibilities based on the responsibilities they
undertake. A warehousing company for example, will have the following responsibilities
in general:

v Provide capable staff for handling of dangerous goods.
v Provide appropriate and well-maintained equipment for the storage and

handling of dangerous goods.

v Store and handle the dangerous goods in separated areas if needed.

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3. In-house Policy and Risk Management

Objective:
On completion of this section, the learner will be able to:

v Explain the importance of in-house policies regarding safety, security and risk

management, and understand what they pertain to, respectively.
In house policy concerning safety, security, and dangerous goods
The company’s effective in-house policy forms the foundation of the company’s entire
approach to safety, security and dangerous goods. It also forms the base for successfully
implementing specific projects in the future. With a clear and comprehensive policy,
standards can be established by assigning responsibilities and providing basic rules,
guidelines, and definitions for everyone in the organisation. By doing so, the
inconsistencies that may lead to risks can be prevented, and the safety and security
level enhanced.
It is therefore suggested that all parties concerned should develop, implement and
maintain human resources management policies and operational working procedures,
which not only address issues such as efficiency and quality, but pay equal attention to
safety issues and the proper treatment of dangerous goods.
Risk Management
A risk is the probability or threat that the safety or security of an asset, person, or object
is damaged e.g. injured, lost, or destroyed.
Risk management should provide protective measures to reduce these risks.
This is a continuous, repetitive process, comprising the following steps:

v Selecting the relevant assets and activities which are important and require

protection.

v Defining the related risks (weaknesses, including human factors in the

infrastructure, policies, and procedures) and their potential consequences.

v Defining and implementation of protective measures to eliminate / reduce the

risks.

v Monitoring the effectiveness of these measures in practice.
v Adjusting the protective measures where needed.

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The implementation costs of the protective measures should of course be adjusted to
the likelihood and the severity of the expected damage. Image 1.1 identified the various
types of risk areas, and a FF needs to be aware of these in reference to dangerous
goods, and also all other goods, irrespective of the nature of the cargo.
Legislation and rules such as ISPS, SOLAS and others provide a legal framework for risk
management in logistics activities, as will be explained in the next chapters.

Image 1.1 – Identifying risk areas (from GMLS presentation on contract management)

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CHAPTER 2: DANGEROUS GOODS REGULATIONS

Chapter Learning Objective:
On completion of this Chapter, the learner will be able to:

v Know and understand the main provisions of the international dangerous goods

regulations, general (UN) as well as specific regulations for each mode of
transport.

1. UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (Orange
book)

Objectives:
On completion of this section, the learner will be able to:

v Know and understand what the Model Regulations are, their main purpose and

their main provisions.

v Use the UN Dangerous Goods List in identifying and classifying dangerous goods.

The UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods was prepared by the
United Nations Economic and Social Council’s (ECOSOC) Committee of Experts on the
Transport of Dangerous Goods (CETDG) and was first published in 1956. Because of the
colour of the cover, the publication is known also in business as “Orange book”.
The Recommendations are addressed to governments and to the international
organisations concerned with safety in the transport of dangerous goods. In response to
developments in technology and the changing needs of users, the Recommendations
are amended and updated regularly at succeeding sessions of the Committee of Experts.
The latest publication is the twenty-first revised edition issued in 2019.
This edition can be downloaded using the following link:
https://unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/danger/publi/unrec/rev21/ST-SG-AC10-
1r21e_Vol1_WEB.pdf
Model Regulations
At its eighteenth session (28 November – 7 December 1994), the UN ECOSOC
Committee of Experts decided to reform the Recommendations into Model Regulations,
which could be directly integrated into national and international regulations pertaining
to each specific model.

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The aim of the Model Regulations is to present a basic scheme of provisions that will
allow the uniform development of national and international regulations governing the
various modes for transport. Using an UN-system ensures compatibility between the
international modes of transport so a consignment may be carried by more than one
mode without intermediate reclassification, repacking and relabelling. Modifications are
only made to the system to take account of the peculiarities of the different modes of
transport.
Scope and structure of Model Regulations
Scope
The Model Regulations covers amongst other aspects:

v principles of classification and definition of classes;
v listing of the principal dangerous goods;
v identification of dangerous goods;
v general packing requirements;
v testing procedures;
v marking;
v labelling or placarding; and
v Transport documents.

Structure
The UN Model Regulations consists of seven parts, two appendices and an alphabetical
index of substances and articles in two volumes. Each part is subdivided into chapters,
sections and subsections. The layout is as follows:
Volume I
1. General provisions, definitions, training and security
2. Classification
3. Dangerous goods list and limited quantities exceptions
Appendix A – List of generic and N.O.S. proper shipping names
Appendix B – Glossary of terms
Alphabetical index of substances and articles
Volume II
4. Packing and tank provisions
5. Consignment procedures

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6. Requirements for the construction and testing of packaging,
intermediate bulk containers (IBCs), large packaging, portable tanks,
multiple-element gas containers (MEGCs) and bulk containers

7. Provisions concerning transport operations
Dangerous Goods List
The dangerous goods list is central to the use of the UN Model Regulations. The List is
contained in part 3, chapter 3.2 of the Model Regulations, which contains dangerous
goods and articles in the numerical order of UN numbers.
The dangerous goods list is divided into 11 columns. In these columns you can find the
relevant provisions and information in text, numbers and alpha-numeric codes after
each UN number. At the beginning of the list in section 3.2.1 you are able to find the
explanation of the data in the columns and the references to the detailed provisions in
the relevant parts, chapters and sections.
Below is an example of the dangerous goods list from the UN Orange book.

UN Name and Class Subsidiary UN Special Limited Packaging and IBCs Portable tanks and bulk
No. description or packing provisions containers
risk(s) quantities

division group

Packing Special Instru Special
instructi packing ctions provisions
ons provision

s

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)

167 PHENOL, 6.1 II 279 500 g P002 B2, B4 T3 TP33
1 SOLID IBC08

How to Use the List ?
To be able to use the list you need to know the UN number of the substance or article. If
the UN number is not known you may find it via the alphabetical index.
The UN number is a four-digit number assigned to a specific dangerous good by the
United Nations Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods.

Once the UN number of a specific dangerous substance or article has been determined,
the table provides cross-references to specific requirements to be applied for the

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carriage of that substance or article, and to the chapters or sections where these
specific requirements may be found. Nevertheless, it should be borne in mind that the
general requirements or class specific requirements of the various parts have to be
applied, in addition to specific requirements, as relevant. The use of the alphabetical
index is limited because it does not comprise every existing substance or substance to
be produced. Therefore, a substance or article which cannot be found in the
alphabetical index may not simply be considered harmless. However there is a process
that can be followed to identify an “item not listed by name”.

2. IATA-DGR and ICAO-TI (Air)

Objectives:
On completion of this section, the learner will be able to:

v Explain the respective functions of the IATA-DGR and ICAO-TI
v Use the dangerous goods list contained IATA-DGR and ICAO-TI for the purpose of

classifying dangerous goods and establishing their respective requirements for
packing, marking labelling, documenting and transporting them.
There are two international organisations that are related to international civil aviation.
They are The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), set up by 52 States in 1944
in Chicago, USA, and The International Air Transport Association (IATA) which was
founded in Havana, Cuba, in April 1945.
Both ICAO and IATA have laid down regulations concerning the transport of dangerous
goods by air. Respectively they are Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR) from IATA and
Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO TI’s) from
ICAO.
Since the IATA’s DGR is stricter in terms of requirements than the ICAO TI’s, in business
practice the DGR is simply and widely used. The DGR also comprises the text of ICAO TI’s
as well as the additional requirements and information from IATA. DGR is known as a
“field manual” version of the ICAO Technical
Instructions.
ICAO TI’s
In November 1944 in the International Civil
Aviation Conference when the ICAO was
founded, the participating 52 states also signed
the Convention on International Civil Aviation
(known as the Chicago Convention). The
Conference laid the foundation for a set of rules and regulations regarding air navigation

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as a whole, which brought safety in flying a great step forward and paved the way for
the application of a common air navigation system throughout the world.
Annex 18 to the Convention of Chicago agreed on the broad principles governing the
international transport of dangerous goods. The detailed and technical requirements
are concluded in the ICAO TI’s.
The ICAO TI’s are based on material produced by the United Nations, and for radioactive
materials, the International Atomic Energy Agency Regulations for the Safe Transport of
Radioactive Material.
Modifications are made to the system to take into account the peculiarities of air
transport, while keeping in mind the need to ensure modal
compatibility.
IATA’s DGR
Since its foundation in Cuba in 1945, IATA is the prime vehicle for
inter-airline co-operation in promoting safe, reliable, secure and economical air services
for the benefit of world’s consumers. IATA had 57 Members from 31 nations, mostly in
Europe and North America at its foundation. Today IATA has grown to include over 290
members from more than 120 nations in every part of the globe.
The IATA recognised in the early 1950’s that there was a need to standardise the rules
governing the transport of dangerous goods by air. In consequence, a team of airline
and technical expertise developed the IATA “Restricted Article Regulations” (RAR) in
1956; meanwhile IATA continues publishing its Regulations in the form known as the
Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR). DGR is published annually with the latest rules on
air mode dangerous goods from states, operators and the ICAO.
DGR Structure
The structure of the IATA DGR is different from the structure of the UN Model
Regulations and the ICAO TI’s. The IATA DGR contains 10 sections, subdivided into
subsections and seven appendices.
The titles of the 10 sections are:

1. Applicability
2. Limitations
3. Classification
4. Identification
5. Packing
6. Packaging Specifications and Performance Tests
7. Marking and Labelling

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8. Documentation
9. Handling
10. Radioactive Material
The titles of the appendices are:
A. Glossary
B. Nomenclature
C. Currently Assigned Substances
D. List of IATA Member, Associate Member other airlines
E. Competent Authorities
F. Packaging Testing Facilities, Manufacturers and Suppliers
G. Related Services

DGR List of Dangerous Goods
Contrary to the UN Model Regulations the IATA DGR contains a list of dangerous goods
in alphabetical order in subsection 4.2. The UN numerical list can be found in subsection
4.3.
At the beginning of the list in subsection 4.1.6 of DGR you are able to find the
explanation of the data in the columns and the references to the detailed provisions in
the relevant sections and subsections.
Below is an example of the dangerous goods list from DGR.

Passenger and Cargo Aircraft Cargo Aircraft
Only

UN/ Proper Shipping Class Hazard PG EQ
See
ID Name/Description or Label(s) 2,7 Ltd Qty S.P. ERG
No. Div. See Code
Pkg Max 4.4

Sub Pkg Max Net Inst Net Pkg
QTY/P
Risk Inst QTY/Pkg kg Inst Max Net

QTY/Pkg

AB CD E FG H I JK L MN
2248 Di-n-butylamine II A1 Y808 0.5 L 8F
Corrosiv

8 (3) e& 808 1 L 812 30 L
Flamm.

liquid

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3. IMDG Code (Sea)

Objective:

On completion of this section, the learner will be able to:

v The learner should understand about the international agreement governing
dangerous goods in sea transport (IMDG Code), the development of the code,
and its coverage in general.

IMO

The international body in sea
transport is the International
Maritime Organisation (IMO),
based in London. IMO received
its name in 1982 after its
predecessor IMCO (Inter-
Governmental Maritime
Consultative Organisation), which
was the first ever international

body devoted exclusively to
maritime matters since 1948.

From the very beginning, the improvement of maritime safety and the prevention of
marine pollution have been IMO's most important objectives.

In order to achieve its objectives, IMO has, over the past decades, promoted the
adoption of some 40 conventions and protocols and adopted well over 700 codes and
recommendations concerning maritime safety, the prevention of pollution and related
matters.

Within IMO, the most senior committee is the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), which
is responsible for the improvement of maritime safety. MSC also has a number of sub-
committees. One of the sub-committees is the sub-committee on the Carriage of
Dangerous Goods, Solid Cargoes and Containers (DSC).
International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG)
IMDG overview
As a further step towards meeting the need for international rules governing the
carriage of dangerous goods in ships, the International Conference on Safety of Life at
Sea, held in 1960, laid down a general framework of provisions in chapter VII of the
Convention and invited IMO to undertake a study with a view to establishing a unified
international code for the carriage of dangerous goods by sea.

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In 1965 the first edition of this Code was completed by the working group, approved by
the MSC and adopted by the Assembly of IMO. The Assembly recommended the IMDG
Code to Governments for adoption or for use as the basis for national regulations.
As far as contracting governments of the SOLAS Convention and the MARPOL
Convention is concerned, the contracting governments should implement the
regulations of the IMDG Code in their national legislation in pursuance of their
obligations under:

v Chapter VII, regulation 1.4 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention, as amended; and
v Annex III, regulation 1 (3) of MARPOL 73/78, as amended.
Observance of the IMDG Code ensures compliance with the mandatory provisions of the
SOLAS Convention and of Annex III of MARPOL 73/78.
IMDG Scope
The IMDG Code covers, among other things the following subjects:

• classification
• identification (description)
• a list of dangerous goods
• labelling
• the shipping documents
• packing;
• container traffic; and
• stowage, with particular reference to the segregation of incompatible

substances.

IMDG Evolution
This Code has undergone many changes, both in layout and content, in order to keep
pace with the expansion and progress of industry and to achieve and maintain a level of
harmonisation between the IMDG Code, the UN Recommendations on the Transport of
Dangerous Goods, and the regulations of the other transport modes according to ADN,
ADR, ICAO-TI’s and RID.
For example, since 1 July 1992 the IMDG Code also comprises regulations for the
carriage of harmful substances, referred to as Marine Pollutants.
These are based on the regulations of Annex III of the International Convention for the
Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL

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73/78), which deals with the prevention of pollution by harmful substances carried by
sea in packaged form. Annex III is referring to the IMDG Code.
The MSC adopted on 23 May 2000 Amendment 30-00 to the IMDG Code, which
comprises the first full revision in reformatted style. This amendment entered into force
on 1 January 2002. In May 2004, the MSC adopted Amendment 32-04, which entered
into force from 1 January 2006. There is two-year cycle of updating by the IMO. The
current edition is from 2018 which is mandatory and the 2019 edition is voluntary as the
2018 edition is also still in use.
IMDG Structure
The structure of the IMDG Code is consistent with that of the UN Model Regulations.
The IMDG Code contains 7 parts, subdivided into chapters, sections and subsections,
and two appendices and an alphabetical index.
The titles of the seven parts are:

1. General Provisions
2. Classification
3. Dangerous Goods List and Limited Quantities Exceptions
4. Packing and Tank Provisions
5. Consignment Procedures
6. Construction and Testing of Packaging, Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC’s), Large

Packaging, Portable Tanks and Road Tank Vehicles
7. Provisions Concerning Transport Operations
The titles of the appendices are:
a) List of generic and N.O.S. Proper Shipping Names
b) Glossary of terms in class 1
c) Alphabetical Index

The official IMO edition has been published in two volumes. Volume 1 contains parts 1,
2 and 4 to 7. Volume 2 contains part 3 and the appendices A and B and the alphabetical
index. There is also a supplement to the IMDG Code which comprises the following
publications:

v Emergency Response Procedures (The EmS Guide)
v Medical First Aid Guide (MFAG)
v Reporting Procedures
v Packing Cargo Transport Units (IMO/ILO/UN ECE Guidelines)

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v Safe Use of Pesticides in Ships
v International Code for the Safe Carriage of Packaged Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium

and High-Level Radioactive Wastes on board Ships (INF Code)
v Appendix (Resolutions and Circulars)
Dangerous Goods List
The dangerous goods list in IMDG is divided into 20 columns. In the official IMO
publication, the columns 1 to 11 have been printed on the left page, and the columns 12
to 18 on the right page. In these columns you can find after each UN number the
relevant provisions and information in text, numbers and alpha-numeric codes.

4. ADR (Road)

Objective:
On completion of this section, the learner
will be able to:

v Know and understand what the
international agreement governing
dangerous goods in road transport
is (ADR), and its application in
general.

In international road transport, the
governing regulation is the European
Agreement concerning the International
Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
(ADR). ADR was agreed upon at Geneva on
30 September 1957 under the auspices of
the United Nations Economic Commission
for Europe and became effective since 29
January 1968.
The detailed regulations concerning the transport of dangerous goods can be found in
the Annexes A and B of the ADR, which have been regularly amended and updated since
the entry into force of ADR.
The Agreement itself is short and simple. The key article is the second, which says that
apart from some excessively dangerous goods, other dangerous goods may be carried
internationally in road vehicles subject to compliance with:

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v The conditions laid down in Annex A for the goods in question, in particular as
regards their packaging and labelling; and

v The conditions laid down in Annex B, in particular as regards the construction,
equipment and operation of the vehicle carrying the goods in question.

The layout of the ADR is as follows:
Annex A: General provisions and provisions concerning dangerous articles and
substances.

Part 1 General provisions (exemptions, definitions,
training, etc)

Part 2 Classification
Part 3 Dangerous goods list and limited quAaDnRtities
Part 4 Use of packaging, IBC’s and tanks RID
Part 5 Consignment procedures (marking,IMlabDeGll-icnogdaend
documentation)
Part 6 Requirements for the construction and testing of

IBC’s and tanks
Part 7 Conditions of carriage, loading, unloading and
Annex B: Provisions concerning transport equipment and transport operations
Part 8 Vehicle crews, equipment and operation of
vehicles
Part 9 Construction and approval of vehicles

The structure of ADR is consistent with that of the UN Model Regulations. The Annex A
comprising Part 1 to 7 is in line with the UN Model Regulations. Annex B from part 8 and
9, contains specific provisions affecting road transport only.
Dangerous Goods List
Like the UN Model Regulations, the dangerous goods list may be considered as the entry
to the ADR regulations. The dangerous goods list of ADR is divided into 20 columns. In
the official ADR publication, the columns 1 to 11 have been printed on the left page and
the columns 12 to 20 on the right page.

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5. RID (Rail)

Objective:
On completion of this section, the learner will be able to:

v Understand what the international agreement governing dangerous goods in rail
transport is (RID), and its application in general. **

The regulation related to international railway
transport in dangerous cargo is the Regulation
concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous
Goods by Rail (RID).
RID applies to the international carriage of dangerous
goods by rail on the territory of all member states of
the COTIF (Convention concerning International
Carriage by Rail, 9 May 1980, modified by the Vilnius
Protocol of 3 June 1999). Also, as a consequence of
the COTIF, the Intergovernmental Organisation for
the International Carriage by Rail (OTIF) was set up on
1 May 1985. One of the activities of OTIF is the
ongoing updating of RID.
The structure of the RID is consistent with that of the
UN Model Regulations. The RID contains seven parts.
Each part is subdivided in chapters, sections and
subsections. The layout is as follows:

v General Provisions
v Classification
v Dangerous Goods List, Special Provisions and Exemptions related to Dangerous Goods

packed in Limited Quantities
v Packing and Tank Provisions
v Consignment Procedures
v Requirements for the Construction and Testing of Packaging, Intermediate Bulk

Containers (IBC’s), Large Packaging, Tanks and Bulk containers
v Provisions concerning the Conditions of Carriage, Loading, Unloading and Handling

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Like the UN Model Regulations, the dangerous goods list is the entry to the RID
regulations. The RID dangerous goods list is divided into 20 columns. In the official RID
publications, the columns 1 to 11 are printed on the left page and the columns 12 to 20
on the right page.

6. Inland Waterway Transport (ADN)

Objective:
On completion of this section, the learner will be able to:

v Explain what the European agreement governing dangerous goods in inland
waterway transport is (ADN), its effective status, and its provisions in general.

In inland waterway transport there is no
general international convention, but
national regimes, e.g. the Russian inland
waterway system, and some international
conventions on certain rivers, like the
respective conventions for the Rhine River
and the Danube River in Europe.
The UNECE together with CCNR organised a
Diplomatic Conference during which the
European Agreement concerning the
International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by
Inland Waterway (ADN) was adopted on 25
May 2000. The ADN provisions are the same
as those applicable already on the Rhine,
hence the Agreement is intended to set up
the same high level of safety on the entire
European inland waterways network. The
ADN however has not entered into force yet.
CCNR
The Final Act of the Congress of Vienna in 1815 established the principle of freedom of
navigation on international waterways. On 17 October 1868, the signing of the
Mannheim Convention established the principles for navigation on the Rhine which are
still in force today. Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland are
member States of this Convention, and they founded the Central Commission for the
Navigation of the Rhine (CCNR) which is composed of the representatives, called
Commissioners.

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ADN
The ADN consists of a main legal text and regulations annexed thereto. The annexed
regulations contain provisions concerning the carriage of dangerous goods in packages
and in bulk on board inland navigation vessels and tank vessels, as well as provisions
concerning the construction and operation of such vessels. They also address
requirements and procedures for inspection, issue of certificates of approval,
recognition of classification societies, monitoring, and training and examination of
experts.
The annexed regulations of ADN contains nine parts, of which part 1 to 7 are in line with
the UN Model Regulations while part 8 and 9 contain specific provisions affecting
transport by inland waterway only.
The titles of part 1 to 7 are:

1. General provisions
2. Classification
3. Dangerous Goods List, Special Provisions and Exemptions related to Dangerous

Goods packed in Limited Quantities
4. Packing and Tank Provisions
5. Consignment Procedures
6. Requirements for the Construction and Testing of Packaging, Intermediate Bulk

Containers (IBC’s), Large Packaging, Tanks and Bulk containers
7. Provisions Concerning the Conditions of Carriage, Loading, Unloading and

Handling
The titles of part 8 and 9 are:
v Requirements for vehicle crews, equipment, operation and documentation
v Requirements concerning the construction and approval of ships
Contrary to the UN Model Regulations, Part 3 of the annexed regulations of ADN
contains 3 dangerous goods lists which are also central to the use of the ADN
regulations. This was done to be able to divide the provisions in regulations for dry
cargo vessels and tank vessels.
The Dangerous Goods Lists are:
Table A: List of dangerous goods in UN numerical order
Table B: List of dangerous goods in alphabetical order
Table C: List of dangerous goods accepted for carriage in tank vessels in UN

numerical order

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Table A
This dangerous goods list is divided into 13 columns and is mainly used for the carriage
of dangerous goods in dry cargo ships.
Table B
If the UN number is not known you can find it through table B, the alphabetical index.
The use of the alphabetical index is limited because it does not comprise every existing
substance or substance to be produced. Therefore, a substance or article which cannot
be found in the alphabetical index may not simply be considered harmless.
Table C
Table C comprises the list of dangerous goods accepted for carriage in tank vessels in UN
numerical order. This table is divided into 20 columns.

7. EN12798 (Supplement to ISO 9000 Series) and National Legislations

Objective :
On completion of this section, the learner will be able to:

v The learner should understand what EN12798 is about, and that apart from
international agreement, national legislations form an important part of
regulations in relation to dangerous goods transport.

EN12798
EN12798 is the European standard, which specifies quality management system
requirements, supplementary to those of EN ISO 9001:2000, for the management of
safety in the field of the transport of dangerous goods by road, rail and inland
navigation.
The application of EN 12798 covers, and is limited by, the range of transport related
services that the company claims to provide in compliance with this European Standard.
The key components of EN 12798 include explosion and fire safety precautions,
transportation safety of hazardous substances, and training of employees.

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National Legislation

National legislation may provide additional rules depending on specific circumstances in
the country concerned. However, this national legislation will always elaborate on the
principles as set out by the UN and international conventions and rules & regulations,
such as IMDG, RID, ADR and others.

The South African legislation which is applicable to the transport of dangerous goods
and the respective Competent Body responsible for administering each of these laws
are as follows:

MODE LEGISLATION COMPETENT BODY

Road The National Road Traffic Act 93 of 96: SA National Roads Agency
Chapter VIII of the Regulations: (SARAL) (Under DoT)
Transportation of Dangerous Goods and
Substances by Road

Rail National Railway Safety Regulator Act 16 of Department of Transport
2002

Air Carriage by Air Act, 1946 SA Civil Aviation Authority
Sea International Air Services Act, 1993 (SACAA) (Under DoT)

Non Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, 1986 South African Maritime
Modal Safety Authority (SAMSA)
National Ports Act, 2005, (including Harbour (Under DoT)
Rules and Regulations)

International Convention for Safe Containers
Act, 1985

Hazardous Substances Act, 1973 Dept. of Health and
Population Development

Many of these laws also incorporate some or all of the following South African national
standards and Codes of Practice:

• SABS 1398 “Road tank vehicles for petroleum-based flammable liquids”
• SABS 1518 “Transportation of dangerous goods – design requirements for road

tankers”
• SABS 0228 “The identification and classification of dangerous substances and

goods”

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• SABS 0229 “Packaging of dangerous goods for road and rail transportation in
South Africa”

• SABS 0230 “Transportation of dangerous goods – Inspection requirements for
road vehicles”

• SABS 0231 “Transportation of dangerous goods – Operational requirements for
road vehicles”

• SABS 0232 “Transportation of dangerous goods – Emergency information
systems”

• SABS 0368: Transport of low hazard goods in bulk – Emergency information for
road vehicles.

• SANS 10405: Transport of dangerous goods by rail: operational and design
requirements and emergency preparedness

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CHAPTER 3: DG CLASSIFICATION

Chapter Objectives:
On completion of this Chapter, the learner will be able to:

v Explain how the respective properties of a particular substance enable suitably
qualified people to classify it into one or more of the 9 Dangerous Goods Classes.

v Explain how knowledge of the UN number and/ or Proper Shipping Name of a
substance may be used to establish the requirements for packing, marking
labelling, documenting and transporting that substance.

1. Main classes (1 – 9)

Objective:

On completion of this section, the learner will be able to:

v Verify the Dangerous Good Class (es) under which a substance has been
classified from the properties of that substance.

v Apply the procedures required for classifying non-classified goods, and
classification in some special cases.

In the case of transport, goods are considered as dangerous if a substance, material or
article has been classified or can be classified in accordance with the definitions and
criteria of one of the classes of the UN Model Regulations (Orange Book).

The UN Orange Book, Manual of Tests and Criteria present the UN schemes for the
classification of certain types of dangerous goods and gives descriptions of the test
methods and procedures to be used for proper classification.

Classes and divisions

The UN Model Regulations divides dangerous goods into 9 classes, including divisions:

Class 1: 1.1 Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard
Explosives 1.2 Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a

mass explosion hazard

1.3 Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a
minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not
a mass explosion hazard

1.4 Substances and articles which present no significant hazard

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Class 2: 1.5 Very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard
Gases 1.6 Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion

Class 3: hazard
Flammable 2.1 Flammable gases
Liquids 2.2 Non-flammable, non-toxic gases
Class 4: 2.3 Toxic gases
Flammable Liquids having an initial boiling point of 35oC or less and any flash
Solids point.

Class 5: 4.1 Flammable solids, self-reactive substances, and desensitised
explosives
Class 6:
4.2 Substances liable to spontaneous combustion
Class 7: 4.3 Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
Radioactive 5.1 Oxidising substances
Material 5.2 Organic peroxides
Class 8: 6.1 Toxic substances
Corrosive 6.2 Infectious substances
Class 9: Substances or a combination of substances which emit ionising
Miscellaneous radiation
Dangerous
Goods Corrosive substances are substances that can dissolve organic tissue
or severely corrode certain metals
Hazardous substances that do not fall into the other categories (e.g.
asbestos, air-bag inflators, self-inflating life rafts, dry ice).

For a detailed reading of distinctive characteristics for each class, please refer to Annex 1
at the end of this module.

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Classified Dangerous Goods
A considerable number of dangerous substances, materials and articles that have been
classified already by the experts of the UN are also listed in alphabetical order in the
alphabetical index.
The alphabetical index, however, is not exhaustive because it is impossible to cover all
substances, materials and articles that occur in traffic at present. Neither is it possible
to index “new” substances, materials and articles that may be offered for shipment in
the future. Therefore, it should not be assumed that when a particular substance,
material or article does not appear in the list either its transport is forbidden, or it is not
dangerous.
Procedures for Classifying Non-Classified Dangerous Goods
In order to cover substances, materials and articles not listed in the Dangerous Goods
List in part 3, chapter 3.2 of the Orange Book, because shipments are infrequent or
because a product is new in international trade, “Generic” and “N.O.S.” (Not Otherwise
Specified) entries are given, with the effect that all dangerous substances, materials and
articles can then in fact, be included.
The classification of substances, materials or articles not listed in the Dangerous Goods
List should be made by the shipper/consignor or by the appropriate competent
authority where specified.
Once the class of the goods has been established, all applicable requirements for
transport shall be complied with.
Cases may arise however, where certain substances, materials or articles not listed
cannot be classified but are nevertheless regulated by the competent authority of a
particular country. The consignor should ensure that such requirements are met when
applicable.
Generic or Not Otherwise Specified (N.O.S.) Entries
Practical considerations prohibit the listing of all dangerous goods by name. Therefore,
many dangerous goods must be transported under one of the "GENERIC" or "NOT
OTHERWISE SPECIFIED (N.O.S)'' entries.
A "GENERIC'' or "NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED (N.O.S)'' entry may be used to offer
transport for a substance, material or article which is not listed by its name.
Such a substance, material or article may be transported only after:

v its dangerous, hazardous and/or harmful properties have been determined.
v it has been classified in accordance with the class definitions and criteria; and
v the entry that most accurately describes the nature of the goods has been

selected.

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Any substance, material or article having, or suspected of having, explosive properties or
characteristics should first be considered for classification in class 1.

EXAMPLES of “GENERIC'' or "NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED (N.O.S)'' entries:
1. GENERIC entry for well-defined groups of substances or articles:

UN 2757 CARBAMATE PESTICIDE, SOLID, TOXIC

2. SPECIFIC NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED (N.O.S) entry covering a group of substances or
articles of a particular chemical or technical nature:
UN 1477 NITRATES, INORGANIC, N.O.S.

3. GENERAL NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED (N.O.S) entry covering a group of substances
or articles meeting the criteria of one or more classes:

UN 1993 FLAMMABLE LIQUID, N.O.S.

Solutions and Mixtures containing a Single Dangerous Substance listed by Name in the
Dangerous Goods List
A solution or mixture containing a single dangerous substance identified by name in the
Dangerous Goods List and one or more substances not subject to the regulations shall
be assigned a UN Number and Proper Shipping Name of the dangerous substance
except when:

v the solution or mixture is specifically listed elsewhere in this Code; or
v the schedule for the dangerous substance specifically indicates that it applies

only to the pure or technically pure substance; or
v the class, physical state or packing group of the solution or mixture is not the

same as that of the dangerous substance; or
v There is a significant change in the measures to be taken in emergencies.
In those cases, except for solutions or mixtures specifically listed, the mixture or solution
shall be treated as a dangerous substance not specifically listed by name in the
Dangerous Goods List and shall be classified under a "GENERIC" or "NOT OTHERWISE
SPECIFIED (N.O.S)'' entry.

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Substances, Mixtures and Solutions with Multiple Hazards
The table of precedence of hazard characteristics in volume 1, part 2, and subsection
2.0.3.6 shall be used to determine the class of a substance, mixture or solution having
more than one hazard when it is not specifically listed by name. For substances,
mixtures or solutions that have multiple hazards which are not specifically listed by
name, the most stringent packing group of those assigned to the respective hazards of
the goods takes precedence over other packing groups, irrespective of the precedence
of hazard table.
The precedence of hazard table indicates which of the hazards shall be regarded as the
primary hazard. The class which appears at the intersection of the horizontal line and
the vertical column is the primary hazard and the remaining class is the subsidiary
hazard. The packing groups for each of the hazards associated with the substance,
mixture or solution shall be determined by reference to the appropriate criteria. The
most stringent of the groups so indicated should then become the packaging group of
the substance, mixture or solution. (Note: For hazards not shown in the table of
precedence reference is made to volume 1, part 2, subsection 2.0.3.4.)

Samples
When the hazard class of a substance is uncertain and it is being transported for further
testing, a tentative hazard class, Proper Shipping Name and identification number shall
be assigned on the basis of the consignor’s knowledge of the substances and application
of:

v The classification criteria; and
v The presence of hazards given in volume 1, part 2, section 2.0.3.
The most severe packing group possible for the Proper Shipping Name chosen shall be
used and the Proper Shipping Name shall be supplemented with the word “SAMPLE”.
For exceptions reference is made to volume 1, part 2, and subsection 2.0.4.2.

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2. Identification: UN Number, Proper Shipping Name

Objective:
On completion of this section, the learner will be able to:

v Explain how knowledge of the UN number and/ or Proper Shipping Name of a
substance may be used to establish the requirements for packing, marking
labelling, documenting, and transporting that substance in compliance with the
regulations which pertain to the mode(s) via which that substance must be
transported.

Identification
When dangerous goods are offered for transport, it is essential that they can be
identified as such in order to allow those in any way involved to take the necessary care
and precautions
Dangerous goods can be identified by the:

v proper shipping name.
v class.
v UN number; and
v hazard labels (placards), signs and marks
To ensure that the substance, material or article can be readily identified during
transport, the proper shipping name, class and the UN number of a substance, material
or article offered for transport and, in the case of a marine pollutant, the addition of
MARINE POLLUTANT shall be indicated on documentation accompanying the
consignment.
For the same reason packages, intermediate bulk containers (IBC's), and if applicable
cargo transport units containing the goods containers, freight vehicles, portable tanks
(tank containers) and tank vehicles shall be durably marked or affixed with the relevant
proper shipping name, UN Number, hazard label(s) or placard(s), signs and marks.
This ready identification is particularly important in the case of an incident involving
these goods, in order to determine what emergency procedures are necessary to deal
properly with the situation.

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Proper shipping name
The names of dangerous goods vary greatly, because there are so many different
synonyms, initials and abbreviations used for the same substance, material or article
throughout the world. To prevent confusion the UN has recommended the use of only
one name, which is called the “Proper Shipping Name”.
The “Proper Shipping Name” as recommended by the UN is implemented in
international conventions governing different modes of transport. As an example, Annex
2 shows the detailed regulation and explanation about “proper shipping name” in sea
transport, as contained in the IMDG Code.

UN Number
In order to facilitate the identification of dangerous goods the UN has assigned a specific
number to each substance, material or article and generic or not otherwise specified
(n.o.s.) entry which has been classified as dangerous during transport.
These identification numbers which are called UN numbers are four-digit figures. Only
the UN numbers below 1000 can be related to substances or articles of a particular class
being class 1 (explosives). International conventions governing different modes of
transport have adopted the UN number into their specific indexes for dangerous cargo.

Labels (placards), signs and marks
Another method of identification of the specific hazard(s) of a dangerous substance,
material or article is the use of specific labels (placards), signs and marks on packages,
intermediate bulk containers (IBC's), and cargo transport units (containers, freight
vehicles, portable tanks/tank-containers and tank vehicles). This will be explained in
Chapter 11.5.

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CHAPTER 4: MARKING AND HANDLING OF HAZARDOUS CARGO

Chapter Learning Objectives:
On completion of this Chapter, the learner will be able to:

v Apply knowledge of dangerous goods labelling and marking requirements to
ensure that consignments of dangerous goods presented for shipment are in
compliance with the regulations pertaining to the mode(s) of transport to be
used.

v Apply knowledge of relevant dangerous goods regulations in handling dangerous
goods, in taking appropriate action and in reporting on incidents and accidents
involving dangerous goods.

1. Hazard Labels and Labelling

Objectives:
On completion of this section, the learner will be able to:

v Identify the correct dangerous goods label required for each class of dangerous
goods

v Apply marking and labelling to consignments of dangerous goods in compliance
with the regulations pertaining to the mode(s) of transport to be used.

Labels, Signs and Marks
Use of specific labels, signs and marks is another method of identification of the specific
hazard(s) of a dangerous substance, material or article. Such labels, signs and marks are
placed on packages and intermediate bulk containers (IBC's), indicating the hazard(s)
through colours and symbols of the enclosed substances, materials or articles.
Packages containing dangerous goods must have marks and labels that alert persons
physically handling the packages of the contents. Emergency response personnel may
use the marks and labels to identify the contents too.

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Labelling
Hazard labels and placards (enlarged labels) indicating the primary or subsidiary hazard
shall bear the class number in the bottom corner.
Descriptive text on the labels is optional with the exception of the labels for class 7
(radioactive materials).
Hazard labels should be used on packages and IBC’s and hazard placards on cargo
transport units.

Illustrations of Class Labels
Class 1 - Explosives*
1.1 Explosives with a mass explosion hazard
1.2 Explosives with a projection hazard
1.3 Explosives with predominantly a fire hazard
1.4 Explosives with no significant blast hazard
1.5 Very insensitive explosives blasting agents
1.6 Extremely insensitive detonating articles
*Compatibility Groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, N, or S for mixed shipments

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Class 2 - Gases
2.1 Flammable gases
2.2 Non-flammable, non-toxic* compressed gases
2.3 Gases toxic* by inhalation

Class 3 - Flammable Liquids
Flammable liquids (and Combustible liquids in the U.S.A.)

Class 4 - Flammable Solids, Combustible Materials, Dangerous
When Wet
4.1 Flammable solids
4.2 Spontaneously combustible materials
4.3 Dangerous when wet materials

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Class 5 - Oxidisers and Organic Peroxides
5.1 Oxidisers
5.2 Organic Peroxides

Class 6 - Toxic* materials and Infectious substances
6.1 Toxic materials
6.2 Infectious substances

Class 7 - Radioactive Materials

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Class 8 - Corrosive Materials

Class 9 - Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods
9.1 Miscellaneous dangerous goods
9.2 Environmentally hazardous substances
9.3 Dangerous wastes

In the various modes of transport there are other labels
that are referred to as Handling labels, these differ to the hazardous labels previously
shown.

Environmentally Hazardous Substances

Elevated Temperature Sign

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Fumigation Warning Sign

Cryogenic Liquid label:

Keep away from heat label:

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Cargo Aircraft Only:

Package Orientation Labels:

2. Packaging and Packing Groups

Objectives:
On completion of this section, the learner will be able to:

v Know and understand the importance of packaging of dangerous goods
v Identify the party responsible for packaging dangerous goods consignments
v Explain how the three UN packing groups are applied in determining the

packaging specifications of any dangerous goods consignment.
v Interpret the UN packing specifications mark.

Packaging
In general, one of the most important preventative safety measures within the
regulations for the safe transport of dangerous goods is the requirements with regard to
the packaging of dangerous substances, materials and articles.
The manufacturer of the packaging must apply the design and testing requirements, but
it is the responsibility of the shipper and/or consignee to make sure that the packages
are in proper condition for the transport of the specific dangerous goods, and that the

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marks on the package are correct for the shipment. The freight forwarder and carrier
shall verify that the correct packaging is used.

Requirements for Packaging
In general, the packaging design and specifications must meet UN’s standards, or, in the
case of radioactive materials, the International Atomic Energy Agency’s standards.
Additionally, the competent authority of the national government may also set
standards for the packaging of certain classes of dangerous goods (especially radio
actives).
The general requirements for the packaging of dangerous goods are:

v Well-made and in good condition;
v Of such a character that any interior surface with which the contents may come

in contact is not dangerously affected by the substance being conveyed; and
v Capable of withstanding the ordinary risks of handling and carriage in transit.

Types of Packaging
v Packaging
v Large packaging
v Pressure receptacles
v Unit loads
v Overpacks
v Salvage packaging

Construction and Testing of Packaging
In the vast majority of cases, packaging carrying dangerous goods must meet stringent
design and testing requirements. The UN has specified the performance tests to which
all packaging types used to dangerous substances, materials or articles must be subject.
The detailed specifications and a number of performance tests applicable to these
packaging is to be found in respective international conventions in relation to different
modes of transport.
The design type of each packaging should be tested in accordance with procedures
established by the competent authority. Tests should be successfully performed on each

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packaging design type before such packaging is used. Suitable evidence must be
established and kept enabling the fact that the tests have been passed successfully to be
verified.

UN Tests and Test Report
Examples of UN packaging performance tests are:

• Drop test
• Leakproof test
• Internal pressure (hydraulic) test
• Stacking test
A test report containing at least the required particulars should be drawn up and should
be available to the users of the packaging. A copy of the test report should be available
to the competent authority.

UN Packaging Mark
Packages that meet UN’s standard are called UN Specification packages and have certain
UN Specification markings displayed on the package itself.
The UN packaging mark indicates a successfully tested design type and compliance with
the provisions of relevant international convention, if applicable, which are related to
the manufacturing (but not to the use) of the packaging. Therefore, the mark does not
necessarily confirm that the packaging may be used for any substance.
The marking is intended to be of assistance to packaging manufacturers, re-
conditioners, packaging users, carriers, and regulatory authorities. In relation to the use
of a new packaging, the original marking is a means for its manufacturer to identify the
type and to indicate those performance test requirements that have been met.
Each packaging intended for use should bear markings which are durable, legible, and
placed in such a location and of such a size relative to the packaging as to be readily
visible.
The first part of the marking shows:

v The United Nations packaging symbol or the capital letters
“UN” on embossed metal packaging.

v The code designating the type of packaging

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v A letter designating the packaging group or groups for which the design type has
been successfully tested:
• X for packing groups I, II and III
• Y for packing groups II and III
• Z for packing group III only.

Examples of Marking for a New Packing

u

n 1A1/Y1.4/150/98/NL/VL824

1A1 = type of packaging (steel drum)
Y= tested for packaging groups II and III
1.4 = maximum relative density
150 = hydraulic test pressure in kilopascals (kPa)
98 = year of manufacturing
NL = State authorising the allocation of the mark (Netherlands)
VL = Name of the manufacturer (Van Leer)
824 = Identification number of the packaging specified by the
competent authority

NOTE: Plastics drums and jerricans should also be appropriately marked with the
month of manufacture, because unless otherwise approved by the competent
authority, the period of use permitted for the transport of dangerous
substances should be five years from the date of manufacture of the packaging,
except where a shorter period of use is prescribed because of the nature of the
substance to be transported.

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UN packing groups

Dangerous goods of all classes other than classes 1, 2, 4.1 (self-reactive substances), 5.2,
6.2 and 7 have, for packing purposes, been divided among three groups according to the
degree of danger they present:

• High danger - packing group I;

• Medium danger - packing group II.

• Low danger - packing group III.

For generic entries and not otherwise specified (n.o.s.) entries the relevant packaging
group should be determined according to the grouping criteria of the relevant class.

Reference Reading

Note: All definitions and explanations below are drawn from the IMDG Code, which
follows the UN Recommendations and therefore is deemed to be able to serve as a
reference to other modes of transport as well.

Packaging

• Packaging includes receptacles and any other components or materials necessary
for the receptacle to perform its containment functions with a maximum net mass of
400 kg or a maximum capacity of 450 litres.

• Receptacles are containment vessels for receiving and holding substances or
articles, including any means of closing.

• Combination packaging are packaging consisting of one or more inner packaging
secured in an outer packaging.

• Composite packaging is packaging consisting of an outer packaging and an inner
receptacle so constructed that the inner receptacle and the outer packaging form an
integral packaging. Once assembled, it remains thereafter an integrated single unit,
which is filled, stored, transported and emptied as such.

NOTE: Packages are the complete product of the packing operation, consisting of the
packaging and its contents prepared for transport.
Examples of packaging: drums, barrels, jerricans, boxes, bags, etc.

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Large Packaging
These are packaging consisting of an outer packaging which contains articles or inner
packaging and which:
a. are designed for mechanical handling; and
b. exceed 400 kg net mass or 450 litres capacity but have a volume of not more than

3m3.

Pressure Receptacles
Pressure receptacles are packaging for the transport of gasses and are a collective term
for:
• cylinders (water capacity ≤ 150 litres)
• tubes (water capacity > 150 - ≤ 3000 litres)
• pressure drums (water capacity > 150 - ≤ 1000 litres)
• closed cryogenic receptacles (water capacity ≤ 1000 litres)
• bundles of cylinders (water capacity ≤ 3000 litres and for toxic gases ≤ 1000 litres)

Unit Loads
A unit load means a number of packages, which are either:

a. placed or stacked on and secured by strapping, shrink-wrapping or other suitable
means to a load board such as a pallet;

b. placed in a protective outer enclosure such as a pallet box;
c. permanently secured together in a sling.

Overpacks
An overpack is defined as an enclosure used by a single consignor to contain one or
more packages and to form one unit for convenience of handling and stowage during
transport.
Examples of overpacks are a number of packages either:

a. placed or stacked on to a load board such as a pallet and secured by strapping,
shrink-wrapping, stretch-wrapping, or other suitable means; or

b. placed in a protective outer packaging such as a box or crate.

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Each package of dangerous goods contained in the overpack should comply with all
applicable provisions of the IMDG Code. The intended function of each package should
not be impaired by the overpack
An overpack should not contain dangerous goods which react dangerously with one
another.
The individual packages comprising an overpack and the overpack itself should be
marked and labelled in accordance with the IMDG Code (volume 1, part 5, chapters 5.1
and 5.2.)

Salvage Packaging
Salvage packaging are special packaging into which damaged, defective, leaking or non-
conforming dangerous goods packages, or dangerous goods that have spilled or leaked
are placed, for purposes of transport for recovery or disposal.
Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent excessive movement of the damaged
or leaking packages within a salvage packaging. When the salvage packaging contains
liquids, sufficient inert absorbent material shall be added to eliminate the presence of
free liquid.

Salvage packaging should be tested and marked in accordance with the provisions
applicable to packaging group II packaging intended for the transport of solids or inner
packaging.
The letter "T" should follow the packaging code. This letter signifies a salvage packaging
conforming to the provisions of part 6 of the IMDG Code.
NOTE:

a. Salvage packaging should not be used as packaging for shipment from premises
where the substances or materials are produced.

b. The use of salvage packaging for other than emergency purposes during
transport (land or sea) requires approval by the competent authority.

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3. Vehicle Plates and Placarding of Vehicles

Objectives:
On completion of this section, the learner will be able to:

v Identify the placards required on a road or rail vehicle or other cargo units
carrying dangerous goods.

v Interpret the Kemler code used to identify dangerous goods carried on road or
rail vehicles in Europe and elsewhere

v Apply South and Southern African legislation in correctly placarding road and rail
vehicles used to transport dangerous goods in that region.

International Kemler Code
European road vehicles driving under ADR must carry an orange, reflecting plate
(Kemler plate). The Kemler plate contains the UN product number (bottom) and a
numerical hazard code (top).

638
1649

The hazard code is a three-digit code, which indicates the hazards involved in dealing
with the material.
The first digit indicates the primary hazard:
2: Gas
3: Flammable liquid
4: Flammable solid
5: Oxidising material or organic peroxide
6: toxic substance
8: corrosive material

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The second + third digits indicate secondary hazards:
0: the first character already adequately describes the total hazard
2: gas may be given off
3: fire risk
5: oxidising risk
6: toxic risk
8: corrosive risk
9: risk of violent reaction from spontaneous combustion or self polymerisation
X: prohibition of water

If the first and second digits are identical, an intensification of the primary hazard is
indicated.
Orange plates without any numbers indicate that the vehicle is transporting either
dangerous goods or a multi load.
Some examples of Hazard Identification Numbers (or Kemler Codes), indicating a
particular hazard or combination of hazards, are listed below:
22 refrigerated liquefied gas, asphyxiant
323 flammable liquid which reacts with water, emitting flammable gases
X323 flammable liquid which reacts dangerously with water, emitting flammable gases
333 spontaneously combustible liquid
X333 spontaneously combustible liquid which reacts dangerously with water
362 flammable liquid, toxic, which reacts with water, emitting flammable gases
X362 flammable liquid toxic, which reacts with water, emitting flammable gases
382 flammable liquid, corrosive, which reacts with water, emitting flammable gases
X382 flammable liquid, corrosive, reacts with water, emitting flammable gases
423 solid which reacts with water, emitting flammable gases
X423 flammable solid which reacts dangerously with water, emitting flammable gases
44 flammable solid, in the molten state at an elevated temperature
446 flammable solid, toxic, in the molten state, at an elevated temperature
462 toxic solid which reacts with water, emitting flammable gases
X462 solid, which reacts dangerously with water, emitting toxic gases

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482 corrosive solid, which reacts with water, emitting flammable gases
X482 solid, which reacts dangerously with water, emitting corrosive gases
539 flammable organic peroxide
606 infectious substances
623 toxic liquid, which reacts with water, emitting flammable gases
642 toxic solid, which reacts with water, emitting flammable gases
823 corrosive liquid which reacts with water, emitting flammable gases
842 corrosive solid which reacts with water, emitting flammable gases
90 environmentally hazardous substance; miscellaneous dangerous substances
99 miscellaneous dangerous substances carried at an elevated temperature.

Placarding of vehicles- Europe and elsewhere
Placards
A placard looks very similar to the dangerous goods labels, like an enlarged label.
Placards are applied to the outside of a cargo transport unit, indicating dangerous goods
inside. Such cargo transport unit includes containers, trucks and trailers, portable
tanks/tank containers and tank vehicles. Placarding of an aircraft cargo container or the
aircraft itself is not required.
Placarding of vehicles
Subject to exemptions, a freight vehicle containing dangerous goods or residues of
dangerous goods shall clearly display the primary risk placard and, if applicable, the
subsidiary risk placard(s), as follows:

a. A semi-trailer, one on each side and one on each end of the unit;
b. Any other freight vehicle, at least on both sides and on the back of the unit.
On freight vehicles carrying explosive substances and articles of more than one division
in class 1 only placards indicating the highest risk need be affixed.

Exemptions
Placards are not required on freight vehicles carrying any quantity of:

c. Explosives of division 1.4, compatibility group S;
d. Excepted packages of radioactive material;

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