# Logical Reasoning Test - 2 - PDF Flipbook

Logical Reasoning Test - 2

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GATE
CSE

Logical
Reasoning

Test-02Solutions

LOGICAL REASONING
1. J, F, M, A, M?

a) M
b) J
c) D
d) S
Solution:
The series contains the first letter of the months of the year in
continuity
2. How many such pairs of letters are there in the word
DREAMLAND each of which has as many letters between them
in the word as in the alphabet?
a) One
b) Two
c) Three
d) More than three
Solution:
Four

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3. A - W, B - X, C - Y and D - Z are four married couples. In a
restaurant they are sitting around a rectangular table, with three
persons along each of the longer sides of the table and one
person along each of the shorter sides. All the male persons (A,
B, C and D) are sitting along the longer sides and no the male
persons are sitting together. X is sitting to the right of C. W and
Z are sitting at the longer sides and neither of them is sitting
adjacent to their respective husbands. Y is sitting to the right of
A. Which pair of people are sitting at the shorter sides of table?
a) Z and X
b) B and Y
c) X and C
d) X and Y
Solution:
As no two husbands sit adjacent to each other and they sit at the
longer side, we get the following arrangement.

X is sitting to the right of C and Y is sitting to the right of A.

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X and Y are not sitting at the longer sides as W and Z are sitting
at the longer side of the table. The arrangement will be,

W and Z are sitting at the longer sides but not adjacent to their
husbands. i.e. Z is adjacent to A and W is adjacent to C. Since
neither of Z and W is adjacent to her husband. Hence, D is
adjacent to W and B is adjacent to Z. Thus we get the following
arrangement.

X and Y are sitting at the shorter sides of table.
4. Tinku, introducing a person to Rinku, said "He is the father of

your sister's son and he is also my mother's husband". How is
Tinku's father related to Rinku's mother?
a) Nephew
b) Uncle
c) Son-in-law
d) Father

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Solution:
He is the father of Rinku's Sister's son means he is Rinku's
Sister's husband. He is also Tinku's mother's husband means
Tinku's mother is Rinku's sister. Now, Tinku's father is Rinku's
brother-in-law. I.e. Tinku's father is Rinku's mother's son-in-law.
5. Modern warfare has changed from large scale clashes of armies
to suppression of civilian populations. Chemical agents that do
their work silently appear to be suited to such warfare; and
regretfully, there exist people in military establishments who
think that chemical agents are useful tools for their cause.
Which of the following statements best sums up the meaning of
the above Passage?
a) Modern warfare has resulted in civil strife
b) Chemical agents are useful in modern warfare
c) Use of chemical agents in warfare would be undesirable
d) People in military establishments like touse chemical agents

in war
Solution:
The question is about summary. It means we need to find out the
intersection of writer
a) Strife means conflict, this option is not the right choice

because chemical agent attack civilians but not resulted in
civil strife

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b) This option only takes about positive usage of chemical
agents in modern warfare. Which is not the intension of
writer?

c) The key word here “regretfully” the writer’s feels that
chemical agents in the warfare are not describe. This is not
describing. This is the right choice

d) Even this option talk about the positive usage of chemical
agents (i.e) military establishment encourages the usage of
them which is not the writer’s intension.

6. Direction: Two statements I and II are given. These statements
may be either independent causes or may be effects of
independent causes or a common cause. One of these statements
may be the effect of the other statements. Read both the
statements and decide which of the following answer choice
correctly depicts the relationship between these two statements.
I. There is sharp decline in the production of oil seeds this
year.
II. The Government has decided to increase the import
quantum of edible oil.
a) Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect
b) Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect
c) Both the statements I and II are independent causes
d) Both the statements I and II are effects of independent

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Solution:
A sharp decline in oilseed production is bound to reduce oil
supply, and import of oil is the only means to restore the
essential supply
7. Statements: P * Q, [email protected] T, T * L
Conclusions:
I. Q # L
II. T # P
a) if only conclusion I is true,
b) if only conclusion II is true,
c) if either I or II is true,
d) if neither 1 nor II is true, and
Solution:
P Š Q, Q = T and
TŠL=QŠL
8. If 137 + 216 = 435, how much is 731 + 672 = 1
a) 534
b) 1403
c) 1623
d) 1513
Solution:
This is Octa numbers addition operation

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9. If DELHI is coded as 73541 and CALCUTTA as 82589662,
how can CALICUT be coded?
a) 5279431
b) 5978213
c) 8251896
d) 8543691

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Solution:
Justification:
The alphabets are coded as follows:
DE L HI CAUT
735418296
So, in CALICUT,
C is coded as 8,
A as 2,
L as 5,
I as 1,
U as 9 and
T as 6
Thus, the code for CALICUT is 8251896.
10. A dice is numbered from 1 to 6 in different ways.
If 2 is opposite to 3 and adjacent to 4 and 6, then which of the
following statements is necessarily true?
a) 1 is opposite to 5
b) 4 is opposite to 6
c) 4 is adjacent to 2 and 6
d) 1 is adjacent to 2 and 3
Solution:
If 2 is opposite to 3, then 1 cannot lie opposite to either of the
two numbers - 2 or 3. Hence, 1 is necessarily adjacent to both 2
and 3.

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11. The horse has played a little-known but very important role in
the field of medicine. Horses were injected with toxins of
diseases until their blood built up immunities. Then a serum was
made from their blood. Serums to fight with diphtheria and
tetanus were developed this way. It can be inferred from the
passage, that horses were
a) given immunity to diseases
b) generally, quite immune to diseases
c) given medicines to fight toxins
d) given diphtheria and tetanus serums
Solution:
Interface questions should deal with conclusion of the paragraph
that conclusion of the paragraph is not clearly mentioned in the
paragraph so, according to
a) horses where given immunity to disease but according to
paragraph immunity is naturally developed by the horses
b) This is the right choice, because horses have natural capacity
to develop immunity to decrees. That is the resin when
Horses were injected toxins they built up immunities.
c) Horses were not giving medicines to fight toxins. This is not
the fact according to the passage.
d) Diphtheria cannot be given a disease

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12. Manoj, Prabhakar, Akash and Kamal are four friends. Who
among them is the heaviest?
I. Prabhakar is heavier than Manoj and Kamal but lighter than
Akash.
II. Manoj lighter than Prabhakar and Akash but heavier than
Kamal.
a) if the data in statement I alone are sufficient to answer the
question;
b) if the data in statement II alone are sufficient answer the
question;
c) if the data either in I or II alone are sufficient to answer the
question;
d) if the data even in both the statements together are not
Solution:
From I we have, P > M, P > K, A > P.
From II we have, M > K, P > M, A > P.
Combining the above two, we have: A > P > M > K. Thus,
Akash is the heaviest.
So, both the attachments are required.

13. Of the six members of a panel sitting in a row, A is to the left of
D, but on the right of E. C is on the right of X, but is on the left
of B who is the left of F. Which two members are sitting right in
the middle?

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a) A and C
b) C and B
c) D and B
d) D and C
Solution:
A is left of D means AD. A is to the right of E means EA. So,
the sequence is EAD. C is to the right of X means XC. C is to
the left of B means CB. B is to the left of F means BF. So, the
sequence is XCBF. Thus, there are two possible arrangements-
members in the middle are D and C. In the second arrangement,
the two members in the middle are B and E. So, from amongst
choices, D and C is the answer.
14. AP, BQ, CR, DS, __
a) ET
b) EU
c) TE
d) EV
Solution:
AP, BQ, CR, DS, __
The first letters in all the pairs, i.e., A, B, C and D form a series
of consecutive letters. Similarly, the second letters P, Q, R and S

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form another pair of consecutive letters. Hence, the next pair in
the series is ET.
15. The fuel consumed by a motorcycle during a journey while
traveling at various speeds is indicated in the graph below.

The distances covered during four laps of the journey are listed

in the table below

Lap Distance Average speed

(kilometers) (kilometers per hour)

P 15 15

Q 75 45

R 40 10

S 10 10

From the given data, we can conclude that the fuel consumed

per kilometer was least during the lap

a) P

b) Q

c) R

d) S

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Solution:
From the given graph, we can conclude that the fuel consumed
per kilometres was least during the lap ‘Q’ because it will have
average speed is 45 kmph but it covered 75 kilometres of
distance (maximum)
16. If X walks less fast than Y, and Y walks as fast as but not
faster than Z; then, as compared to X, Z walks:
a) Slower than X
b) Faster than X
c) With same speed as X
d) Given data is not sufficient to determine
17. Should there be an upper age limit of 65 years for contesting
parliamentary/Legislative Assembly elections?
Arguments:
1. Yes. Generally, people above the age of 65 years lose their

dynamism and will power
2. No. The life span is also increased that people remain

physically and mentally active even up to age of 80 years
a) Only 1 is true
b) Only 2 is true
c) Either 1 or 2 is true
d) Neither 1 nor 2 is true

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Solution:
The age of the person is no criteria for judging his mental
capabilities and administrative qualities. So, none of the
arguments holds strong
18. P, Q, R and S are four types of dangerous microbes recently
found in a human habitat. The area of each circle with its
diameter printed in brackets represents the growth of a single
microbe surviving human immunity system within 24 hours of
entering the body. The danger to human beings varies
proportionately with the toxicity, potency and growth attributed
to a microbe shown in the figure below:

(Probability that microbe will overcome human immunity
system) A pharmaceutical company is contemplating the
development of a vaccine against the most dangerous. Which
microbe should the company target in its first attempt?
a) P
b) Q
c) R
d) S

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Solution:
P, Q, R and S are four types of dangerous microbes recently
found in a human habitant in the graph
→ on X-axis respected probability that microbe will overcome
human immunity system and
→ on X-axis respected toxicity (in milligrams of microbe
required to destroy half of the body mass in kilograms’ microbe
‘S’ will have 80% of probability that microbe will overcome
human immunity system and less weight of milligram of
microbe required destroyed to destroy half of milligram of
microbe will overcome human immunity system and less weight
of milligrams of mass in kgs
Microbe ‘S’ is danger to human beings
19. It is appropriate to compensate someone if you have damaged
his or her property in some way. This is called Restitution.
Which situation below is the best example of Restitution?
a) Jake borrows Leslie’s camera and the lens shatters when it

falls on the ground because he fails to zipper the case. When
Jake returns the camera, he tells Leslie that he will pay for the
repair.
b) Rebecca borrows her neighbor’s car, and when she returns it,
the gas tank is practically empty. She apologizes profusely
and tells her neighbor she will be more considerate the next
time.

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c) Aaron asks Tom to check in on his apartment while he is out
of town. When Tom arrives, he discovers that a pipe has burst
and there is a considerable amount of water damage. He calls
a plumber to repair the pipe.

d) Lisa suspects that the pothole in her company’s parking lot
caused her flat tire. She tells her boss that she thinks the
company should pay for the repair.

Solution:
Jake damaged Leslie’s camera while it was in his possession and
he has agreed to compensate Leslie for the cost of the repair.
20. 4 : 256 :: 5 : ____
a) 1225
b) 125
c) 2525
d) 3125
Solution:
4: 256:: 5: __
This is of the form n:nn.
(4): (4)4:: (5): (5)5
(5)5 = 3125 is the next number

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21. Few school curriculums include a unit on how to deal with
bereavement and grief, and yet all students at some point in their
lives suffer from losses through death and parting. Based on the
above passage which topic would not be included in a unit on
bereavement?
a) how to give support to a grieving friend
b) what emotional stages are passed through in the healing
process
c) how to write a letter of condolence
d) what the leading causes of death are
Solution:
a. letter of condolence is obviously related to bereavement and
grief because it is written to the family which is it written to
the family which is going thought pain and grief
b. this option even related to the situation and material agony a
family goes thought after a death in the family
c. the leading causes of death are cleared not related to
bereavement and parting of deceased person. This is the right
choice
d. Giving support to a grieving friend means dealing with
situation after dearth
Explanation: It is clear that we are support to find out the choice
that is not related to death or situation before the death it’s about
healing process a person goes though after losing a relative.

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22. 40 40 31 31 22 22 13
a) 13 4
b) 13 5
c) 4 13
d) 9 4
Solution:
This is a subtraction series with repetition. Each number repeats
itself and then decreases by 9.

23. 8, 27, 64, 100, 125, 216, 343 Find the odd man out.
a) 27
b) 100
c) 125
d) 343
Solution:
The pattern is 23, 33, 43, 53, 63, 73.
But, 100 is not a perfect cube.

24. Directions: Each of the following questions consists of a
statement followed by two arguments I and II. You have to
decide which of the arguments is a STRONG argument is and
which is a WEAK Argument is.
Statement: Should all the unauthorized structures in the city be
demolished?

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Arguments:
I. No. Where will the people residing in such houses live?
II. Yes. This will give a clear message to general public and

they will refrain from constructing unauthorized buildings.
a) Only argument I is strong.
b) Only Argument II is strong.
c) Either I or II is strong.
d) Neither I nor II is strong.
Solution:
The demolition of unauthorized buildings would teach a lesson
to the unscrupulous builders and also serve as a warning for the
citizens not to indulge in such activities in the future. This is
essential, as unauthorized constructions impose undue burden on
the city's infrastructure. So, only argument II holds strong.
25. Directions: Each of the following questions consists of a
statement followed by two arguments I and II. You have to
decide which of the arguments is a STRONG argument is and
which is a WEAK Argument is.
Statement: Should there be a maximum limit for the number of
ministers in the Central Government?
Arguments:
I. No. The political party in power should have the freedom to

decide the number of ministers to be appointed.

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II. Yes. The number of ministers should be restricted to a certain

percentage of the total number of seats in the parliament to

avoid unnecessary expenditure.

a) Only argument I is strong.

b) Only Argument II is strong.

c) Either I or II is strong.

d) Neither I nor II is strong.

Solution:

Clearly, there should be some norms regarding the number of

ministers in the Government, as more number of ministers

would unnecessarily add to the Government expenditure. So,

argument II holds strong; also, giving liberty to the party in

power could promote extension of unreasonable favor to some

people at the cost of government funds. So, argument I does not

hold.

26. The data given in the following table summarizes the monthly

budget of an average household.

Category Amount (Rs.)

Food 4000

Clothing 1200

Rent 2000

Savings 1500

Other expenses 1800

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The approximate percentage of the monthly budget NOT spent

on savings is

a) 10%

b) 14%

c) 81%

d) 86%

Solution:

The total monthly budget of an average

Household = 4000 + 1200 + 2000 + 1500 + 1800

= Rs. 10500

Percentage of the monthly budget spent on

Savings = savings amount = 1500 × 100 = 14.285%
Total expenses 10500

Approximately percentage of the

= 100 – 14.285 = 85.714 = 86%

Monthly budget NOT spend on savings

27. Conclusions:

Some elephants are being cats is a possibility

Some tigers are being an elephant is a possibility

Statements:

Statements – 1: All cats are dogs; No elephant is dog.

All Tigers are cats

Statements – 2: Some cats are dogs; some Elephants are dogs.

No tiger is elephant

Statements – 3: Some cats are dogs; some elephants are dogs.

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No tiger is elephant
Statements – 4: Some cats are dogs; some elephants are dogs
All tigers are cats
a) Statements – 1
b) Statements – 2
c) Statements – 3
d) Statements – 4
Solution:

28. How many such digits are there in the number 7346285 which
are as far away from the beginning of the number, as they will
be when arranged in ascending order within the number?
a) None
b) One
c) Two
d) Three
Solution:
Given Number: 7346285
Ascending Number: 2345678
Answer is Two. Those digits are 3, 4

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29. There are eight bags of rice looking alike, seven of which have
equal weight and one is slightly heavier. The weighing balance
is of unlimited capacity. Using this balance, the minimum
number of weighing required to identify the heavier bag is
a) 2
b) 3
c) 4
d) 8
Solution:
Let us together eight rise bags are A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H
Case: I

If A, B & C(set 1) and D, F(set 2) are equal, in second
weighting
Either G (or) H are heavier.
Case: II

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If A, B & C(set 1) and D, E &F (set 2) are not equal among set 1
ans set 2 any one them is heavier than others
If set 2 (D, E&F) is heavier than set 1, in second than set 1, in
second weight D vs E
→ if D and E are equal, than F is heavie
→ if D and E are unequal, then heigher side one is heavier
From case I and case II, the maximum number of weightings
required to identify the heavings required to identify the heavier
bag is ‘2’.
30. Which one of the following Venn diagrams correctly illustrates
the relationship among the classes?
Uncles, Parents, Friends
a)

b)

c)

d)

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